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Inclusionary Housing Prevalence, Impact, and Practices (2017)

How prevalent are inclusionary housing programs in the United States? Researches Emily Thaden and Ruoniu Wang conducted a comprehensive nationwide survey in 2016 and 2017. Their research yielded this working paper, appendix, and policy highlight.

Row of houses with pitched roofs

This Resource at a Glance

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  • At the end of 2016, there were 886 jurisdictions with inclusionary housing programs located in 25 states and the District of Columbia.
  • Inclusionary housing programs are an increasingly prevalent tool for producing affordable housing.
  • Local inclusionary housing programs are prioritizing on-site affordable housing development.
  • Local inclusionary housing programs are ensuring long-term affordability.

More cities are considering adopting inclusionary housing policies to reduce affordable housing shortages and foster inclusive communities. However, too little is known about the characteristics and trends of this affordable-housing tool. Consequently, policymakers, city staff and stakeholders are at risk of reinventing the wheel as they design, modify, and implement inclusionary housing policies.

A national survey, conducted in 2016 by Grounded Solutions Network and published as a working paper by the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, addresses some gaps in knowledge on inclusionary housing policies. This survey was the most comprehensive investigation of inclusionary housing in the United States to date. It identified 886 jurisdictions with inclusionary housing programs located in 25 states and the District of Columbia at the end of 2016.

Grounded Solutions Network gathered information on program productivity for 373 of these jurisdictions (about 40 percent). That subset reported creating 173,707 affordable housing units and collecting $1.7 billion in impact or in-lieu fees for the creation of affordable housing through inclusionary housing programs.

This collection of resources includes:

  • A 61-page working paper from the Lincoln Institute for Land Policy analyzing a nationwide survey of inclusionary housing programs
  • An appendix listing 168 inclusionary housing programs and their characteristics and impact
  • An 8-page policy highlight report by Grounded Solutions Network summarizing and visualizing the results of the nationwide survey


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